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Author-Date? Footnotes? What does this mean?

These terms refer to how and where a citation appears in your work. Author-Date means the citation appears as a surname and year, and Footnotes means the citation appears in a footnote at the end of the page, linked to your work by a small superscript number.

Author-Date (often called Harvard) and Footnotes both encompass many hundreds of styles in use throughout Academia. They could be seen as 'genres' rather than styles in their own right.

At King's we have chosen two, one from each genre, to be used at King's:

  • Our Author-Date style is APA 6th
  • Our Footnotes style is Chicago 16th

Which one should you use?

Check with your tutors and departments if you aren't sure which referencing style you're expected to use when writing your academic assignments.

Every referencing style in use at King's can be found as standard in almost every piece of referencing software available, and they're kept up to date by their respective organisations.

Use the tabs on the left to see more about each referencing style in use at King's.

Aren't using referencing software just yet? Click on the Choosing the right software tab on the left to get started.

Need to know more about the Author-Date and Footnotes styles?

You can find videos to learn more about the styles in use and some quizzes you can take to make sure you know what you need to do, on KLaSS:

Author-Date (APA 6th) and Footnotes (Chicago 16th) Style Guides